Description of risk Example of a possible attack

1. Injection

Command injection is an attack method (SQL, NoSQL, OS or LDAP) in which a hacker searches for security vulnerabilities in web applications to exploit them and execute specific commands (e.g.: modify a login form or inject malicious code, among others) to access confidential information. Injection of malicious code through web forms to execute an unauthorized command or bypass the login process and access confidential information.

2. Broken Authentication and session management

Vulnerabilities or incorrectly configured authentication systems or session management allow hackers to impersonate legitimate users and access confidential information or compromise the web application itself.
Some examples are:
◌ Unlimited session timeout
◌ No required session logout
◌ Credential management (weak passwords, passwords stored in plain text)
◌ Password reset (forgotten passwords)
Keeping the session active after a user closed the browser tab is especially dangerous on public computers. This is the equivalent to leaving the door wide open to your house. Hackers just need to log on to the same computer and they have access to your account

3. Sensitive data exposure

Confidential data stored in web-based applications is not always properly protected. In a man-in-the-middle attack, the hacker poisons communication protocols.  By placing themselves between users and serves, they manage to intercede all unencrypted communications.

4. XML External Entity (XXE)

XML-based vulnerabilities can be exploited to disclose confidential information, falsify server requests, launch web server attacks and even trigger denial of service attacks against the web application itself. DDoS attacks

5. Broken Access Control


Inadequate access control (lack of knowledge about who accesses which systems/resources) can result in brute force attacks or privilege escalation

Visible URLs facilitate the manipulation of authentication processes.

6. Security Misconfiguration

Security misconfiguration or too many details in error messages may provide clues about vulnerabilities in the code Too many details in the error message that the user gets when entering the wrong credentials may point out the hacker to an exploitable vulnerability

7. Cross Site Scripting (XSS)

Server vulnerabilities can be exploited to modify the code and execute malicious scripts in users’ browsers. Once a web server vulnerability is exploited, the hacker can replicate a legitimate hosted website and redirect users to the fake one to obtain information that will be later be used for malicious purposes

8. Insecure Deserialization

For those of you who are not familiarized with the serialization process. It consists of converting data objects into simple text strings to allow their transmission or saving, being deserialization the reverse process.
The problem arises when malicious objects are deserialized. When this happens, a denial of service attack can be triggered, the logic of the application can be modified or even the code can be executed remotely on the server.



The logic of an application can be easily modified during the deserialization process if the PHP application is not adequately protected.

9. Using components with known vulnerabilities

Vulnerabilities in web application components, such as frameworks or libraries, can be exploited and affect all the applications using them. The components of the IoT devices are not always updated and, the few that are, are rarely updated to the latest version.

10. Insufficient Logging and Monitoring

Insufficient logging and monitoring are the cause of almost all major incidents.

The number of days (on average) that it takes to discover a breach makes us think that, either not enough security tools are being used or that the alerts they generate are not taken seriously enough.


Not a day goes by without hearing about a business that has realized that its network and systems have been compromised for weeks, months or even years

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